The research briefing is part of a series of monthly updates aiming to provide an overview of new studies on electronic cigarettes. The briefings are intended for researchers, policy makers, health professionals and others who may not have time to keep up to date with new findings and would like to access a summary that goes beyond the study abstract.
Association of initial e-cigarette and other tobacco product use with subsequent cigarette smoking in adolescents: a cross-sectional, matched control study
Lion Shahab, Emma Beard and Jamie Brown looked at whether vaping could lead to an increase in teen cigarette smoking in the United States. They concluded: “Less than 1% of US adolescents who use e-cigarettes first were established cigarette smokers. They were less likely to be smokers than adolescents who tried other combustible or non-combustible tobacco products first and propensity score matched adolescents without initial e-cigarette use.”
UKECRF said the study, “examines first product use without examining the extent of use. Therefore, it does not consider experimenting with the products versus regular use.” It added that “the survey did not report differences in the types of e-cigarettes used. Therefore, it cannot be determined if use of different brands, for example Juul, affects the relationship with future smoking.”
Is e-cigarette use in non-smoking young adults associated with later smoking? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Khouja, Suddell, Peters, Taylor, and Munafò also investigated whether e-cigarette use compared with non-use in young non-smokers is associated with subsequent cigarette smoking.
They concluded: “Although the association between e-cigarette use among non-smokers and subsequent smoking appears strong, the available evidence is limited by the reliance on self-report measures of smoking history without biochemical verification. None of the studies included negative controls which would provide stronger evidence for whether the association may be causal. Much of the evidence also failed to consider the nicotine content of e-liquids used by non-smokers meaning it is difficult to make conclusions about whether nicotine is the mechanism driving this association.”
UKECRF commented: “There was insufficient data to pool the results of regular cigarette use at follow - up. Therefore, the results cannot show that regular or occasional use of e-cigarettes leads to regular smoking.”
“Only one study considered the nicotine concentration of e-cigarettes. Therefore, the results do not show the effect of nicotine exposure in e-cigarettes on subsequent smoking.”
Cost-effectiveness of e-cigarettes compared with nicotine replacement therapy in stop smoking services in England (TEC study): a randomized controlled trial
Li, Hajek, Pesola, Phillips-Waller et al. evaluated the cost-effectiveness of vaping as a quit aid. They concluded that the use of vape products in stop-smoking services is likely to be more cost-effective than using traditional nicotine replacement therapy approaches.
UKECRF stated: “Participants self-reported their health care service use over a six-month period. Therefore, the results may be subject to recall bias.”
“The trial was conducted in three UK Stop Smoking Services and the predictions were based on a specific brand of e-cigarette. Therefore, the cost-effectiveness predictions may not be representative of the entire population.”
UKECRF’s recommended studies from March:
Patterns of use
- Associations Between Nicotine Metabolite Ratio and Gender With Transitions in Cigarette Smoking Status and E-Cigarette Use: Findings Across Waves 1 and 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study.
- Juul and the upsurge of e-cigarette use among college undergraduates.
- A thematic analysis of smokers' and non-smokers' accounts of E-cigarettes.
- Electronic Cigarette Use During Preconception and/or Pregnancy: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Concurrent Mental Health Conditions.
- Electronic Cigarettes to Vaporize Cannabis: Prevalence of Use and Associated Factors among Current Electronic Cigarette Users in Germany (DEBRA Study).
- Integrating Social Dynamics Into Modeling Cigarette and E-Cigarette Use.
- Role of flavours in vaping uptake and cessation among New Zealand smokers and non-smokers: a cross-sectional study.
- Does e-cigarette experimentation increase the transition to daily smoking among young ever-smokers in France?
- An Analysis of Associations Between Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Users.
- Knowledge and attitudes towards E-cigarette use in Lebanon and their associated factors.
- Framing and scientific uncertainty in nicotine vaping product regulation: An examination of competing narratives among health and medical organisations in the UK, Australia and New Zealand.
- High School Youth and E-cigarettes: The Influence of Modified Risk Statements and Flavors on E-cigarette Packaging.
- Nicotine and marijuana attitudes among flavor-only vaping youth: New evidence from Monitoring the Future.
- Impact of e-cigarette use among a cohort of American Indian cigarette smokers: associations with cigarette smoking cessation and cigarette consumption.
- Will Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS) use reduce smoking disparities? Prevalence of daily ENDS use among cigarette smokers.
- Subjective sleep quality and electronic cigarette dependence, perceived risks of use, and perceptions about quitting electronic cigarettes.
- Understanding decisions to use e-cigarettes or behavioural support to quit tobacco: a qualitative study of current and ex-smokers and stop smoking service staff.
- Cost-effectiveness of e-cigarettes compared with nicotine replacement therapy in stop smoking services in England (TEC study): a randomized controlled trial.
- Gender differences in relationships between sociodemographic factors and e-cigarette use with smoking cessation: 2014-15 current population survey tobacco use supplement.
- Is e-cigarette use in non-smoking young adults associated with later smoking? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
- E-Cigarette Use and Regular Cigarette Smoking Among Youth: Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (2013-2016).
- Prevalence of Electronic Cigarette Use and its Determinants among 13-to-15-Year-Old Students in Greece: Results from the 2013 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS).
- Psychological well-being and dual-use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes among high school students in Canada.
Harms and harm reduction
- A numerical investigation of the potential effects of e-cigarette smoking on local tissue dosimetry and the deterioration of indoor air quality.
- Potential for release of pulmonary toxic ketene from vaping pyrolysis of vitamin E acetate.
- Exposure to secondhand aerosol of electronic cigarettes in indoor settings in 12 European countries: data from the TackSHS survey.
- Electronic cigarettes containing nicotine increase endothelial and platelet derived extracellular vesicles in healthy volunteers.
- Cigarette smoke and electronic cigarettes differentially activate bronchial epithelial cells.
- Ocular conditions and dry eye due to traditional and new forms of smoking: A review.
- Smoking and use of electronic cigarettes (vaping) in relation to preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age in a 2016 U.S. national sample.
- Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Modulates the Oral Microbiome and Increases Risk of Infection.
- In Utero Exposures to Electronic-Cigarette Aerosols Impair the Wnt Signaling during Mouse Lung Development.
- Comparison between in vitro toxicities of tobacco- and menthol-flavored electronic cigarette liquids on human middle ear epithelial cells.
- Passive exposure of non-smokers to E-Cigarette aerosols: Sensory irritation, timing and association with volatile organic compounds.
- E-cigarette advertising expenditures in the United States, 2014-2018.
- Online Pro-Tobacco Marketing Exposure Is Associated With Dual Tobacco Product Use Among Underage US Students.
- The Effects of Cannabis Use: A Test Among Dual Electronic and Combustible Cigarette Users.
- Exploring the Point-of-Sale Among Vape Shops Across the US: Audits Integrating a Mystery Shopper Approach.
- Comprehensive Chemical Characterization of the Aerosol Emissions of a Vaping Product Based on a New Technology.
- “Association of initial e-cigarette and other tobacco product use with subsequent cigarette smoking in adolescents: a cross-sectional, matched control study” by Shahab, Beard, and Brown – [link]
- “Is e-cigarette use in non-smoking young adults associated with later smoking? A systematic review and meta-analysis” by Khouja, Suddell, Peters, Taylor, and Munafò – [link]
- “Cost-effectiveness of e-cigarettes compared with nicotine replacement therapy in stop smoking services in England (TEC study): a randomized controlled trial” by Li, Hajek, Pesola, Phillips-Waller et al. – [link]